Strands of Language Learning, a concept by Paul Nation

  • More input quantity, as long as it’s the right level for the learner (Time on Task principle, if you want to be good at listening do lots of listening). Generally should be several levels below the learner’s level, so they can read a lot.
  • Meaning-focused input
  • Output, learning through speaking and writing
  • Deliberate study, teachers are conscious
  • Fluency, being really good at using what you already know

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