Introductions to Languages

Introduction to French

French has several sounds that do not exist in English.

Some key things to keep in mind when pronouncing French include the distinction between nasal and oral vowels, silent letters, and the use of diacritical marks such as the acute accent (é) and cedilla (ç). It is also important to be aware of the different intonations and stress patterns used in French, which can change the meaning of a word. It is recommended to practice with a native speaker or an experienced teacher to improve your French pronunciation.

There are several sounds in French that can be challenging for English speakers to learn. These include:

  • The French “r” sound, which is trilled at the back of the mouth and has no equivalent in English: “rouge” (meaning red).
  • The “u” sound in French is pronounced with the lips rounded, similar to the “oo” sound in “boo”: “lunettes” (meaning glasses).
  • The “eu” sound, which is pronounced like the “e” in “hey”: “peu” (meaning little).
  • The “oi” sound, which is pronounced like the “wa” sound in “water”: “soirée” (meaning evening).
  • French “h” is usually silent, except in some regional accents: “hôtel” (meaning hotel).
  • The French “c” sound, before the vowel “e” or “i”, is pronounced “s”: “célèbre” (meaning famous). (The cedilla ç also indicates that it is pronounced as “s”.)
  • The French “g” sound, before the vowel “e” or “i”, is pronounced “zh” like “général” = “zhene-ral”, and “génie” (meaning genius).
  • The nasal vowels in French: “an”, “en”, “on”, “in”, “un”, are pronounced with a nasal resonance: “enfant” (meaning child).


The acute accent (mentioned above) on a letter (é) indicates that the vowel is pronounced like in “de” or “du”: “été” (meaning summer). It is pronounced “ey-te” with the accent on the first “e”. “Fête” (meaning party) and is pronounced “feht”.

The grave accent (è) indicates a close-mid front vowel sound as in “célèbre” already used above.

The circumflex (^) sometimes indicates a vowel change and sometimes it’s used to differentiate two otherwise-the-same words. For example “pâte” (meaning dough) and “pate” (meaning paste).

The diaeresis (¨) indicates two vowels are pronounced separately, as in “naïf” (meaning naive).

The apostrophe (’) indicates the elision of a vowel sound or the contraction of words, as in “l’arbre” (meaning the tree) or “j’ai” (meaning I have).

The french accent marks are just to show pronunciation of the vowel (or “c”) (or to visually distinguish two words). French does not use stress marks the same way that Spanish does. In French the stress patterns are more predictable, and the stress is usually on the last syllable of a word. The exception to this rule is some words that have a prefix or an ending that change the stress position, and some words that are borrowed from other languages.

“La soirée à l’hôtel célèbre fut un véritable génie, tout le monde était vêtu de rouge et portait des lunettes, même les enfants peu nombreux étaient habillés avec élégance. C’était une fête d’été inoubliable.”

“The evening at the famous hotel was a real genius, everyone was dressed in red and wore glasses, even the few children were dressed elegantly. It was an unforgettable summer party.”

Emmanuel Macron

Eau (water)
Beurre (butter)
Vous (you)
Oiseau (bird)
Croissant (croissant)
Garçon (boy)
Souvenir (memory)
Baguette (baguette)
Apéritif (aperitif)
Château (castle)
Bureau (desk)
Amitié (friendship)


There are some words in English that French speakers may have difficulty pronouncing, such as

  • The “th” sound, as in the word “think” or “bath”, which does not exist in French. French speakers may substitute the sound with a “t” or “d” sound
  • The “w” sound, as in the word “water” or “what”, which also does not exist in French, French speakers may substitute the sound with a “v” sound
  • Some English words that have a silent letter or letters that French speakers may have trouble with, for example: “knee”, “knife” or “gnat”
  • English words with multiple syllables, French speakers may struggle with separating syllables, or the stress pattern, for example “difficulty”, “recommendation”, or “photographer”

Thorough (adj, complètement et soigneusement)
Through (adj, fait ou terminé)
Wasp (nom, insecte piqueur)
Clothes (nom, choses portées pour couvrir le corps)
Schedule (nom, plan des choses à faire)
Psychology (nom, la science de l’esprit et du comportement)
Conscience (nom, sens moral d’une personne)
Entrepreneur (nom, personne qui démarre une entreprise)
Difficulty (nom, l’état ou la qualité de ce qui est difficile)

Discombobulate (verb, confusion, perturbation)
Disrespectfulness (nom, manque de respect, discourtoisie)
Incomprehensibility (nom, état d’être incompréhensible, indéchiffrable)
Antidisestablishmentarianism (nom, opposition à la suppression de l’établissement religieux)


French was used as the language of diplomacy at the European courts in the 17th and 18th centuries, and it was also the language of the elite in many countries, particularly in Europe and Latin America, before the 20th century.

Additionally, French is one of the official languages of international organizations like the United Nations, the European Union and the Olympics, which made it more popular to learn it.

For linguists, “Old French” did not emerge until the 10th century in the North of France. Before that, there were regions within the area of modern France with different dialects such as Ripuarian (between the South of Belgium and the West of Germany) Moselle Franconian (Luxemburg and surrounding area) and Frankish (Netherlands, Belgium and part of Germany and Elzas). (In Luxemburg they still speak some kind of mix between German and French.)


France as a political entity began to take shape in the 9th century, during the Carolingian Empire, which was ruled by the Frankish king Charlemagne and his line (Franks were a Germanic Tribe, originally from the Rhine River Valley, who started emigrating to Gaul during the 5th Century, and Charlemagne spoke the “Old High German” of the Rhine (and during his reign wanted people to compose in both Latin and this Old High German). These Franks who consolidated power over the region roughly became the modern French, but not with their birth language but with the “Vulgar Latin” already being spoken in the land they emigrated to, although this language was of course heavily influenced by the Old High German of this reign.

(For those coming to this history for the first time, Yes, although we think of France as very distinct from Germany, back in those days the Franks were a Germanic people who migrated westward into Gaulish territories and over time consolidated control over a large territory (including what today is modern France), but the Germanic language they spoke didn’t continue in France into the Medieval Period. Most of France spoke a Gaulish version(s) of Latin developed during the Roman Empire (Roman Gaul, Gauls being the same as Celts) and it held in high esteem pure Latin which it used for scholarship and officialdom. From these languages, modified over time by changes in population, power and influences, French as we know it evolved while German and Latin saw less and less use. Writing also played a part. In 813 the Council of Tours instructed the clergy to translate their sermons in to the ‘rustic’ Romance language of northern Frankia. This is the language that evolved into French.)

In German the word for France is Frankreich.


French became a language in England after the Norman Conquest 1066, the language of the rulers (kings were not fluent in English again until the 13th Century) and landed emigrants which a few decades after the Conquest made up around 10% of the English population. By accounts, English spoke English and Normans spoke Norman, and they spoke each others’ languages to communicate between them.

“Ore devez saveir que en Bretaigne, ki ore est apelee Engletere, orent ja cinc languages e si vus dirai ques il sunt: Bretoneis e Engleis e Schoteis, Picteis e Latineis – ore i est la sime que l’om apele Normand e Francés – les ques sunt fait comuns a plusurs par la doctrine des anciens escriz.” – from Henry of Huntingdon’s “Historia Anglorum” c. 1157

“You should also know that in Britain, which is now called England, there were five languages and I will tell you what they are: Breton and English and Scottish, Pictish and Latin – now there is the sixth that is called Norman and French – which were known by many people through the teaching of old texts.”

While the ruling class didn’t need English for themselves and though French was the language of prestige, the clergy realized that the only way to reach the common people was (similar to the resolution in the Council of Tours) to learn English.

By 1300, due to changes in politics and power (loss of Normandy to France 1204, Baron’s War the decade around 1260), French was a foreign language in England again. It was taught in some schools. (The first phrasebook for learning French was written by Gauter de Biblesworth around 1250.)

However, French permeated and was used as a source for new language in English. During the Middle English Period, thousands of French words entered English (at least in written language). Between 1350 and 1400 20% of new English words were from French. “Canturbury Tales” reached it’s final form around 1400, and over half of the vocabulary is French. Chaucer is, note, the first writer and poet in “vernacular English.”

English, French and Latin

It is estimated that 45% of English vocabulary comes from French (others say 30%). Around 25% of English words come from Germanic origins (Old Saxon). 60% of English words come from Latin, Greek or French.

About 10% of French today is from Frankish German. 85% is from Latin. Very little is from Celtic (although more than in English).

The most commonly used French words and their origins:

Fréq.   Nature      Mot     Origine
1050561 (dét.)      le      Latin
862100  (prép.)     de      Latin
419564  (dét.)      un      Latin
351960  (verbe)     être    Latin
362093  (conj.)     et      Latin
293083  (prép.)     à       Latin
270395  (pron.)     il      Latin
248488  (verbe)     avoir   Latin
186755  (adv.)      ne      Latin
184186  (pron.)     je      Latin
181161  (dét.)      son     Latin
176161  (conj.)     que     Latin
168684  (pron.)     se      Latin
148392  (pron.)     qui     Latin
141389  (dét.)      ce      Latin
139185  (prép.)     dans    Latin
143565  (prép.)     en      Latin
127384  (dét.)      du      Latin
126397  (pron.)     elle    Latin
123502  (dét.)      au      Latin
119106  (dét.)      de      Latin
107074  (pron.)     ce      Latin
105873  (pron.)     le      Latin
104779  (prép.)     pour    Latin
103083  (adv.)      pas     Latin
99412   (pron.)     que     Latin
89623   (pron.)     vous    Latin
82277   (prép.)     par     Latin
80180   (prép.)     sur     Latin
77608   (verbe)     faire   Latin
75499   (adv.)      plus    Latin
72134   (verbe)     dire    Latin
71086   (pron.)     me      Latin
70246   (pron.)     on      Latin
70121   (dét.)      mon     Latin
65988   (pron.)     lui     Latin
62554   (pron.)     nous    Latin
59902   (conj.)     comme   Latin
57690   (conj.)     mais    Latin
55394   (verbe)     pouvoir Latin
55081   (prép.)     avec    Latin
47221   (adj.)      tout    Latin
46031   (pron.)     y       Latin
41702   (verbe)     aller   Latin
39659   (verbe)     voir    Latin
38935   (pron.)     en      Latin
37171   (adv.)      bien    Latin
36089   (pron.)     où      Latin
35915   (prép.)     sans    Latin
35774   (pron.)     tu      Latin
34897   (conj.)     ou      Latin
33950   (dét.)      leur    Latin
33202   (subst.)    homme   Latin
32024   (adv.)      si      Latin
30211   (numér.)    deux    Latin
30082   (subst.)    mari    Latin
30053   (pron.)     moi     Latin
29435   (verbe)     vouloir Latin
28542   (pron.)     te      Latin
26148   (subst.)    femme   Latin
26023   (verbe)     venir   Latin
25592   (conj.)     quand   Latin
25388   (adj.)      grand   Latin
24270   (pron.)     celui   Latin
24024   (conj.)     si      Latin
23883   (dét.)      notre   Latin
22703   (verbe)     devoir  Latin
22695   (adv.)      là      Latin
22232   (subst.)    jour    Latin
20489   (verbe)     prendre Latin
19994   (adv.)      même    Latin
19942   (dét.)      votre   Latin
19915   (adv.)      tout    Latin
19379   (pron.)     rien    Latin



Daily Practice Ideas for Studying a Language

How to learn a language: Getting ‘comprehensible input.’ For example, if someone gives you a word like ‘leaf’ that’s fine but if they hold a leaf and tell you the word ‘leaf’ you will get more out of it. If you’re learning from a book or website, you may have to compensate for the lack of a person giving you such comprehensible context for new words, using your imagination and actively teaching yourself. Focus on understanding the message.

The difference between language ‘acquisition’ and ‘learning’. You don’t need to be aware of your knowledge to use language. You can understand the meaning.

Alternate between active learning and relaxation (not looking at a screen, but being normal).

Sometimes watch shows with subtitles, and sometimes watch without.

Don’t think that repeating words out loud will help you learn. You can learn from just listening. To improve pronunciation, record your voice repeating a native speaker and listen to it.

Sustained silent reading (when a person understands the magority of what they read) of books the reader enjoys will surprise people accustomed to the assumptions of Western education in how it’s effects are better than Audio-Visual-Complete lessons or hard text books.

Daily practice

  • Study a vocabulary lesson
  • Follow Arbol on Facebook or Twitter for vocabulary practice lessons
  • Create and work with flashcards
  • Label everything in your home with post-its or stickers
  • Write your shopping lists in your new language
  • Whenever you need to count something, do it in your new language.
  • Keep a notebook to jot down new words you learn or words you want to look up
  • Look up new terms in a dictionary that only uses your native language to see if you can guess the equivalent in your native language
  • Write a paragraph featuring 10 new words on Facebook or Twitter
  • Use a dictionary aimed at adolescents
Introductions to Languages

Introduction to Code Language

A beginner’s guide to speaking code language

Code language is a system of communication used by computers and programmers to give instructions and perform tasks. It is a crucial tool for building and maintaining software applications, and it is used in a wide range of fields, from web development to scientific research.

One of the key features of code language is that it is precise and unambiguous. This means that each instruction must be written in a specific way, and any mistakes or errors can cause the code to fail. As a beginner, it is important to pay close attention to detail and to be careful when writing code.

Here are a few basic concepts to get you started with code language:

Syntax: Syntax refers to the set of rules that govern the structure of code language. It includes things like the order in which instructions should be written, the use of punctuation and formatting, and the use of keywords and variables.

Variables: Variables are used to store data in code language. They are usually denoted by a name, which is called an identifier. For example, a variable might be used to store a user’s name, or the current date.

Data types: Code language has several different data types, including numbers, strings (text), and Boolean values (true or false). It is important to specify the correct data type when writing code, as this determines how the data will be treated and processed.

Functions: Functions are blocks of code that can be called upon to perform a specific task. They usually take one or more inputs (called arguments) and return an output (called a return value). For example, a function might be used to calculate the average of a set of numbers.

Control structures: Control structures are used to control the flow of code execution. They include things like loops (which repeat a block of code multiple times), conditional statements (which execute different code depending on a certain condition), and exception handling (which handles errors and exceptions).

Comments: Comments are lines of code that are ignored by the computer and are only used to provide explanations or notes to the programmer. They are usually denoted by a specific symbol (such as a pound sign or double forward slash) and are used to make the code easier to read and understand.

Libraries and frameworks: Libraries and frameworks are collections of pre-written code that can be used to perform common tasks or to structure an application. They can save time and effort for the programmer, but it is important to understand how they work and to use them appropriately.

Debugging: Because a conversation or treatise in Code Language must be exactly precise, communicators use a process of review and correction called ‘debugging’ to form their statement into a perfectly clean one. Debugging is the process of finding and fixing errors in code. It is an important skill for any programmer, as it helps to ensure that the code is reliable and performs as intended. There are several tools and techniques that can be used to debug code, including debugging consoles and log files.

Best practices: Various communicators can work together on a statement in Code Language, or modify a statement, and they use standardized processes called ‘best practices’ to know what to expect of each other and make it easier to interpret and intuit what each other put in. There are several best practices that programmers should follow to write efficient and maintainable code. These include using clear and descriptive names for variables and functions, organizing code into logical blocks, and using comments and documentation to explain what the code is doing.

By learning these basic concepts and following best practices, you will be well on your way to speaking code language fluently. As you continue to learn and practice, you will become more familiar with the syntax and structure of code language, and you will be able to write more complex programs.

How to Say “Hello” in Code Language

“Hello” can be translated into code language in several different ways, depending on the context and the programming language being used. Here are a few examples using three Code Languages. All these Code Languages can communicate with a computer. Some communicate by means of an interpreter that sits between the language and the machine (Python works this way, and is therefore referred to as an ‘interpretive language’), and other languages, such as C++, are compiled into machine code that can be run directly by the processor. (As a result, C++ code tends to be faster and more efficient than Python code, but it also requires more time and effort to develop and debug.)

In Python, you can use the built-in “print” function to print a message to the console:


This will print the text “Hello” to the console.

In JavaScript also, you can use the “console.log” function to print a message to the console:


In HTML, you can use the “console.log” function to print a message to the console:


In C++, you can use the “cout” function to print a message to the console:


int main() {
std::cout << "Hello" << std::endl;
return 0;

How to Ask a Question in Code Language

In code language, you can ask a question by using a conditional statement or a loop that waits for user input. Here is an example in Python:

question = input("What is your name? ")
print("Hello to you, ", question)

This code will say to the user, “What is your name?” and when the user types Arbolina, the computer will respond, “Hello to you, Arbolina”. The first line is preparing the computer to store data and call that data ‘question.’ Then the code can call that data back up at any time by referencing it as ‘question.’ If the computer was requested to print(question question question) it would print to the console, ‘Arbolina Arbolina Arbolina.’

To retrieve the status of a computer in order to answer a question, you can use various commands and functions to access system information and data. Here is an example in Python:

import os

# Get the current working directory
cwd = os.getcwd()

# Get the system's hostname
hostname = os.uname().nodename

# Get the system's CPU information
cpu_info = os.cpu_count()

# Print the gathered information
print("Current working directory:", cwd)
print("Hostname:", hostname)
print("Number of CPUs:", cpu_info)

This code will retrieve the current working directory, hostname, and number of CPUs for the computer, and then it will print this information to the console. This data is all stored by someone who originally wrote the information to the computer’s storage. It is saved there and can be called for.

How to Ask a Computer ‘How Are You?’ in Code Language

Here is an example using Python:

status = input("How are you? ")
print("I am", status)

This code will ask the user to input their current status, and then it will print the input back to the user.

To retrieve the status of a computer in order to answer the question “How are you?”, you can use various commands and functions to access system information and data. Here is an example in Python:

import psutil

# Get the system's CPU usage
cpu_usage = psutil.cpu_percent()

# Get the system's memory usage
memory_usage = psutil.virtual_memory().percent

# Print the gathered information
print("CPU usage:", cpu_usage, "%")
print("Memory usage:", memory_usage, "%")

This code will retrieve the current CPU and memory usage for the computer, and then it will print this information to the console. You could also ask a computer to answer this in terms of its temperature.

Computers Can Ask You Questions Back

Computers have the capacity to ask questions, and they do this by using input functions or prompts. That is to say, they can’t ask spontaneously, but rather act according to their program. A prompt can be generated at a random time interval, or it can happen as a specific time interval, or it can be triggered by something the computer senses.

Input functions are used to request user input in a program. For example, in Python, you can use the “input” function to ask the user a question and store their response in a variable:

name = input("What is your name? ")
print("Hello, ", name)

This code will ask the user for their name and then print a greeting using the user’s input.

In addition to input functions, computers can also use prompts to ask questions. A prompt is a message or dialog box that appears on the screen and requests input from the user. Prompts can be used to ask simple questions or to display more complex dialogs with multiple choices.

For example, in JavaScript, you can use the “prompt” function to ask the user a question and store their response in a variable:

let name = prompt("What is your name?");
console.log("Hello, " + name);

This code will ask the user for their name and then print a greeting using the user’s input.

How to Express Emotion in Code Language

It is possible to express emotion in code language. It is often done through the use of text or symbols rather than through facial expressions or tone of voice, but programs can be written to look for cues to emotions in the things the computer senses.

One way to express emotion in code language is to use emoticons, which are combinations of characters that represent facial expressions or emotions. For example, in Python, you can use the following code to print an emoticon to the console:

print("I'm happy! :)")

This will print the text “I’m happy! :)” to the console, along with a smiling emoticon.

Another way to express emotion in code language is to use emojis, which are small graphics that represent facial expressions or emotions. Emojis can be used in code languages such as Python, Java, and C++, but they are usually accessed through libraries or modules that support Unicode characters.

For example, in Python, you can use the “emoji” library to print an emoji to the console:

import emoji

print(emoji.emojize("I'm happy! :smile:", use_aliases=True))

This will print the text “I’m happy! 😄” to the console, along with a smiling emoji.

How a computer can interpret emotions when you input them

Interpreting emotions from input text is a complex task that requires advanced ‘artificial intelligence’ and ‘machine learning’ techniques. It involves analyzing the words, phrases, and context of the input text to determine the emotional content and the sentiment expressed.

There are several approaches to emotion recognition in natural language processing, including rule-based systems, lexicon-based methods, and machine learning algorithms.

Rule-based systems use a set of rules and patterns to identify emotional words and phrases in the input text. For example, a rule-based system might be programmed to recognize words like “happy,” “sad,” and “angry” as indicating specific emotions.

Lexicon-based methods use a list of words and phrases that are associated with specific emotions. These methods rely on the presence of certain words or phrases in the input text to infer the emotional content.

Machine learning algorithms are trained on large datasets of labeled text, where the emotional content of each text has been manually annotated. These algorithms can learn to recognize patterns and features that are indicative of specific emotions, and they can then be used to classify new, unseen text based on these patterns.

How a computer can be programmed to respond to emoticons

Computers can be programmed to recognize and respond to emoticons by using a combination of text processing techniques and machine learning algorithms.

One way to recognize emoticons in text is to use regular expressions, which are patterns of characters that can be used to match or extract specific substrings from a larger string. For example, in Python, you can use the following code to extract emoticons from a string of text:

import re

text = "I'm happy! :)"
emoticons = re.findall(r'[:;][-~]?[)D]', text)

This code will extract the smiling emoticon “:)” from the text and print it to the console.

Once emoticons have been recognized in the input text, a computer can be programmed to respond in a specific way. For example, you could program the computer to print a message or image corresponding to the emoticon, or to perform a specific action based on the emoticon.

Here is an example of code that could be used to respond to different emoticons in Python:

if ":)" in emoticons:
print("I'm happy too!")
elif ":( " in emoticons:
print("I'm sorry to hear

Can a computer be ‘creative’?

Creativity is a complex and multifaceted concept that is difficult to define and even harder to replicate in artificial systems. While computers can be programmed to perform a wide range of tasks and to generate output based on certain inputs, it is debatable whether they can be truly “creative” in the same way that humans are.

That being said, computers can be used to facilitate and enhance human creativity in various ways. For example, computers can be used to generate and manipulate art, music, and writing, as well as to design and solve complex problems. Computers can also be used to analyze and process large amounts of data, which can help humans to discover patterns and insights that they might not have noticed otherwise.

In recent years, advances in artificial intelligence and machine learning have led to the development of systems that can generate novel and unexpected output, such as generating new pieces of music or writing in a specific style. These systems are often based on neural networks, which are inspired by the structure and function of the human brain. While these systems are impressive and can produce output that is surprising or unexpected, it is debatable whether they can truly be considered “creative” in the same way that humans are.

In short, while computers can certainly be used to facilitate and enhance human creativity, it is difficult to say whether they can be truly “creative” in their own right.

Introductions to Languages

Introduction to the Russian Language

Russian is a Slavic language with a fairly phonetic alphabet, so it’s not too difficult to learn how to pronounce Russian words once you familiarize yourself with the rules. Here’s a guide to Russian pronunciation:

The Russian alphabet has 33 letters. Some of these letters are pronounced differently than their English counterparts:

А, О, У, Ы, Э, Я, Ю, and Ё are all pronounced like the vowel sounds in their corresponding English letters (e.g., “a” as in “father,” “o” as in “note,” “y” as in “yes,” etc.).

Е and И are pronounced like the “ye” and “ee” sounds in “yes” and “feet,” respectively.

З is pronounced like the “z” sound in “zoom.”
К is pronounced like the “k” sound in “kite.”
Л is pronounced like the “l” sound in “love.”
Н is pronounced like the “n” sound in “nice.”
П is pronounced like the “p” sound in “pet.”
Р is pronounced like the “r” sound in “red.”
С is pronounced like the “s” sound in “sun.”
Т is pronounced like the “t” sound in “time.”
Ф is pronounced like the “f” sound in “fun.”
Х is pronounced like the “kh” sound in the Scottish word “loch.”
Ч is pronounced like the “ch” sound in “chip.”
Ш is pronounced like the “sh” sound in “shoe.”
Щ is pronounced like the “shch” sound in “pushchair.”
Ь and Ъ are both softening signs that indicate that the preceding consonant should be pronounced more softly.

Russian has a stress accent, which means that certain syllables in a word are pronounced more loudly or with more emphasis than others. The stressed syllable is usually the one that comes before the last one in a word, but this can vary. For example, the stress in the word “банк” (bank) falls on the first syllable, while the stress in the word “поэт” (poet) falls on the second syllable.

Russian has a number of vowel sounds that don’t exist in English. Some of these can be approximated by English speakers, while others are more difficult to pronounce. Here are a few examples:

The “ы” sound is similar to the “i” sound in “bit,” but with the lips rounded.
The “э” sound is similar to the “e” sound in “met,” but with the lips slightly rounded.
The “у” sound is similar to the “oo” sound in “moon,” but with the lips rounded.
The “о” sound is similar to the “o” sound in “note,” but with the lips rounded.
The “я” sound is similar to the “ya” sound in “yard,” but with the lips slightly rounded.
The “ю” sound is similar to the “u” sound in “mute,” but with the lips slightly rounded.
The “ё” sound is similar to the “yo” sound in “yolk,” but with the lips slightly rounded.

Russian has a number of consonant sounds that don’t exist in English. Some of these can be approximated by English speakers.

Here are a few more examples of Russian consonant sounds that may be difficult for English speakers:

The “щ” sound is similar to the “shch” sound in “pushchair,” but with the tip of the tongue touching the roof of the mouth.
The “ч” sound is similar to the “ch” sound in “chip,” but with the tip of the tongue touching the roof of the mouth.
The “ш” sound is similar to the “sh” sound in “shoe,” but with the tip of the tongue touching the roof of the mouth.
The “ж” sound is similar to the “s” sound in “measure,” but with the tongue placed closer to the roof of the mouth and the teeth slightly apart.
The “х” sound is similar to the “kh” sound in the Scottish word “loch,” but with the tip of the tongue touching the roof of the mouth.

Russian has a number of diphthongs, which are two vowel sounds that are pronounced together in a single syllable. Some examples include:

Ай (like the “i” sound in “time”)
Ой (like the “oy” sound in “toy”)
Уй (like the “ooey” sound in “gooey”)
Эй (like the “ay” sound in “say”)
Яй (like the “yay” sound in “hay”)
Юй (like the “ewey” sound in “fewer”)

Russian has a number of nasal vowel sounds, which are pronounced with the nose as well as the mouth. Some examples include:

Ан (like the “on” sound in “honor”)
Он (like the “on” sound in “honor”)
Ын (like the “in” sound in “win”)
Эн (like the “en” sound in “hen”)
Ян (like the “yan” sound in “yawn”)
Юн (like the “ewen” sound in “fewer”)

Russian has a number of palatalized consonants, which are pronounced with the middle of the tongue touching the palate (the roof of the mouth). These consonants are usually denoted by a small “ь” written after the consonant. For example, the word “банк” (bank) is pronounced with a palatalized “n,” while the word “поэт” (poet) is pronounced with a palatalized “t.”

I hope this helps give you a general overview of Russian pronunciation! It’s always a good idea to practice listening to and repeating words and phrases out loud to get a feel for the rhythms and sounds of the language.

The word ‘fun’

If a Russian speaker were to spell the word “fun” in Russian script, they would write it as “фан” (fan). The word “фан” is actually a shortened version of the word “фантазия” (fantaziya), which means “fantasy” or “imagination.” It is often used colloquially to refer to something that is enjoyable or entertaining.

The letters “ф” and “н” in “фан” are pronounced like the “f” and “n” sounds in “fun,” respectively. The “а” is pronounced like the “a” sound in “father.”

The word “fun” can be translated into Russian as “веселье” (vesel’ye). In phonetic transcription, it would be pronounced as follows:

веселье [vye-syel’-ye]

Note that the stress in this word falls on the second syllable. The “е” in the first syllable is pronounced like the “ye” sound in “yes,” while the “е” in the second syllable is pronounced like the “e” sound in “met.” The “и” in the middle of the word is pronounced like the “ee” sound in “feet.”

Kyiv, Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Putin, Zelensky

Kyiv (also spelled Kiev) is written as Киев. The letter К is pronounced like the “k” sound in “key,” the letter и is pronounced like the “ee” sound in “feet,” and the letter в is pronounced like the “v” sound in “vet.”

Moscow (Москва) is pronounced as “MAHSK-va.” The letter М is pronounced like the “m” sound in “mother,” the letter о is pronounced like the “o” sound in “hot,” the letter с is pronounced like the “s” sound in “sink,” the letter к is pronounced like the “k” sound in “key,” and the letter в is pronounced like the “v” sound in “vet.” The stress is typically placed on the first syllable, so the first syllable is pronounced with a little more emphasis than the second syllable.

Saint Petersburg (Санкт-Петербург) is pronounced as “sankt-pyet-yer-BOORK.” The letter С is pronounced like the “s” sound in “sink,” the letter а is pronounced like the “a” sound in “father,” the letter н is pronounced like the “n” sound in “nice,” the letter к is pronounced like the “k” sound in “key,” the letter т is pronounced like the “t” sound in “time,” the letter п is pronounced like the “p” sound in “pet,” the letter е is pronounced like the “ye” sound in “yes,” the letter р is pronounced like the “r” sound in “run,” the letter б is pronounced like the “b” sound in “bat,” and the letter у is pronounced like the “oo” sound in “moon.” The stress is typically placed on the first syllable of the first word and the second syllable of the second word, so those syllables are pronounced with a little more emphasis than the other syllables.

In Russian, the surname Putin is written as Путин and is pronounced as “POO-teen.” The letter П is pronounced like the “p” sound in “pet,” the letter у is pronounced like the “oo” sound in “moon,” the letter т is pronounced like the “t” sound in “time,” the letter и is pronounced like the “ee” sound in “feet,” and the letter н is pronounced like the “n” sound in “nice.” The stress is typically placed on the first syllable, so the first syllable is pronounced with a little more emphasis than the second syllable.

Zelenskyy (also spelled Zelensky or Zelenskiy) is written as Зеленский and is pronounced as “zye-LYEN-skiy.” The letter З is pronounced like the “z” sound in “zoo,” the letter е is pronounced like the “ye” sound in “yes,” the letter л is pronounced like the “l” sound in “love,” the letter н is pronounced like the “n” sound in “nice,” the letter с is pronounced like the “s” sound in “sink,” and the letter к is pronounced like the “k” sound in “key.” The letter и is pronounced like the “ee” sound in “feet,” and the letter й is a palatalized version of the letter и, which means that it is pronounced with a slight “y” sound before it. The stress is typically placed on the first syllable, so the first syllable is pronounced with a little more emphasis than the other syllables.


Most Common Words – English-Japanese

afterward,happening after something else happened,adv,その後
amongst,in or through a group,prep,~の間に;~の中の
artistic,”Being able to paint, write music, etc.; creative”,adj,芸術的な
backward,toward what is behind you,adv,後ろへ
bodily,”physically, as when lifting someone”,adv,身体の
carrier,”a company, usually an airline, that carries things”,n,運送業;航空会社;電話会社
collective,formed by working together as a group,adj,収集された; 集団の
computation,the act of calculating; method of computing,n,計算
continuity,continued existence; fact of not stopping,n,継続性
definite,Not likely to change; clearly decided,adj,明確な;限定的な
freely,”(living, existing) without being controlled”,adv,自由に
generalization,making a statement about a group from limited data,n,一般化;一般概念
generalize,To apply a particular idea to a large group,verb,一般化する
goodness,nourishment; good food value,n,よいこと
historically,throughout history,adv,歴史的に
importantly,in an important way; ,adv,重要なことには
interestingly,you’ll find this surprising; in an interesting way,adv,興味深いことに
locally,Concerning the area around where you are,adj,局所的に;地元で
machinery,machines in general,n,機械
marker,something that is easy to recognize or identify,n,標識;マーカー
meaningful,Having importance; showing someone’s intention,adj,意味のある
namely,”that is to say, specifically”,adv,すなわち;つまり
nationalism,”The spirit of love of your country, e.g. leading to war”,n,国家主義
neat,Not messy; clean and orderly; simple and effective,adj,きちんとした
nicely,in a pleasing way; in a polite way,adv,うまく;よく
noisy,full of noise; loud,adj,やかましい;派手な
outer,on or around something,adj,外側の;中心から遠くにある
painful,causing or feeling physical pain or hurt,adj,痛い
pardon,to excuse,verb,何とおっしゃいましたか?
parental,”concerning, or provided by, a parent”,adj,親の
partial,not complete; being only part of something,adj,部分的な;不公平な
partially,in part; in some degree; not wholly,adv,部分的に;不公平に
photographic,concerning the art of making images with cameras,adj,写真の
planner,notebook for recording appointments or things to do,n,手帳;ノート
problematic,being difficult to deal with or fix,adj,問題のある
readily,in a quick and easy manner,adv,容易に
realism,”accepting things as they are, not as you want”,n,現実主義
realistic,looks or appears real; like things really are,adj,現実的な
rewrite,”to write again to improve, or correct errors”,verb,書き直す
ruler,someone who has control over a country or area,n,支配者;統治者
sexuality,characterized and distinguished by sex,n,性的特質
simplify,”to make something easier to do, use or understand”,verb,簡素化する
sometime,at an unknown time in the future,adj,いつか
specialty,the specific area of your field,n,専門;特殊;名物
subset,a small set which is part of a larger set,n,少派
supposedly,as some people believe (shows you doubt it),adv,たぶん
systematic,”done in a thorough, logical or planned way”,adj,体系的な;組織的な
terribly,to an extreme degree; badly; very,adv,ひどく
thickness,the distance between the opposite edges of a thing,n,厚さ
underneath,below or beneath something; under,adv,下に
unemployed,being without a job; jobless,adj,失業した,失業者
whichever,whatever one,det,どちらの~でも
whoever,whatever person; any person at all,pron,誰が~しようとも;一体誰が~;~する人は誰でも
accent,a way of speaking that shows your dialect or class,n,訛り
actively,doing things to achieve a specific goal,adv,積極的に
adaptation,changing to a new form; thing that is changed,n,適応
adaptive,able to adjust to new conditions,adj,適応性のある
apple,hard round red or green fruit with a white center,n,りんご
authority,”people in positions of power, able to decide things”,n,権力者; 権限者
availability,being present and able to be used,n,可用性;利用可能
bang,to strike something loudly or forcefully,verb,たたく;ぶつける
bat,object used for hitting a ball in various games,n,バット
blank,being empty; not filled out; with no writing on it,adj,空白
bleed,to lose blood because of an injury,verb,出血する
bound,to go to a specified place; to jump,verb,縛られた
broadly,in a general (not detailed) manner,adv,広く
bucket,open container with a handle used to carry liquids,n,バケツ
calculation,process or result of using mathematics,n,計算
calculator,a small electronic device used for calculation,n,計算機
characterization,the way someone or something is described,n,特徴付けること
cheat,To act in dishonest manner to gain an advantage,verb,だます
cheers,a toast used when raising your glass to drink,n,乾杯
clever,Showing intelligence; quick to understand or learn,adj,利口な
clip,a metal holder used for keeping things together,n,クリップ;切り抜き,切り抜く
clue,a piece of information that helps explain a situation or provide a solution to a problem,n,手がかり
commentary,explanation or discussion of a written work/event,n,論評;注釈;記録
commonly,”typically, normally; not unusually”,adv,一般に
comparable,being similar in some way,adj,比較できる;同等な
complication,action making something harder to do something,n,合併症
conditional,depending (on),adj,条件付きの
connector,a device that joins things together,n,コネクタ
conscious,aware of what is going on around you; not knocked out,adj,意識している
consciousness,being awake,n,意識
container,an object that can be used to hold things,n,容器
correction,a change to make something right,n,訂正
correctly,in an accurate or correct manner,adv,正しく
cure,a medicine or treatment that makes an ill person become healthy,n,治療,治療する
detection,the act of discovering something or solving a crime,n,発見;検出
developmental,concerning the development or growth,adj,発達上の
directive,formal an order from an authority,n,指令;指示の
disturbance,a noise or something that stops you from continuing what you were doing,n,騒乱;妨害
economically,in an efficient manner; without using too much effort,adv,経済的に
economist,a person who studies economics,n,経済学者
enormously,”extremely, by a large amount”,adv,非常に
equality,the idea that all people have the same rights,n,平等
flip,to rotate or turn something over,n,反転する;はじく
ghost,”spirit of a dead person, appearing to the living”,n,幽霊
hedge,a fence made with small trees; avoid or try to avoid fulfilling,n,生け垣;防衛
identification,(card or paper) that proves who a person is,n,確認;識別;身分証明書
incredible,very hard to believe,adj,信じられない
incredibly,”extremely, hard to believe”,adv,信じられないほど
indicator,”an instrument that shows conditions in a machine, such as temperature, speed, pressure; in chemistry: a compound that changes color in the presence of an acid or a base”,n,測定器;指針
individually,in a way involving only that person,adv,個別に
industrialization,process of creating and developing many businesses,n,工業化
industrialize,To make into something at an industrial level,verb,工業化する
inequality,situation where things are not equal/fair,n,不平等
influential,having the power to cause change; having influence,adj,影響力のある
instability,not stable; changeable,n,不安定
intensity,”great energy, strength, or concentration”,n,激しさ;強度
intensive,needing great effort for a short period of time,adj,激しい;集中的な
interrupt,to cause something to stop happening for a time,verb,中断する;割り込む
interviewer,a person who asks questions to obtain information,n,面接する人
junior,someone lower in rank,adj,年下の;後輩の,年少者
kilometer,a metric unit of length equal to 1000 meters,n,キロメートル
lab,laboratory; a place to do scientific experiments,n,研究所
likelihood,the chance that something might happen,n,可能性
lump,”a small hard part of something smooth, soft, or continuous”,n,かたまり;しこり
mathematical,concerning numbers and equations,adj,数学の
memorize,to study something so that you remember it,verb,覚える
minus,(prep) being less than zero in number,prep,マイナス;負数
monkey,”an animal related to humans, which lives in trees”,n,サル
nasty,”very bad, unpleasant, or offensive”,adj,不快な;意地の悪い
nest,the home of a bird or spider,n,巣
observer,someone whose job it is to watch or notice things,n,観察者;監視者
occurrence,specific instance of something happening,n,発生;出来事
periodic,”happening regularly, but not frequently”,adj,定期的な
physically,in a manner related to the body,adv,肉体的に;身体上
plug,an electrical connector; to fill or close tightly so liquid or air cannot pass,verb,プラグ;栓
politically,in connection with government matters,adv,政治的に
positively,definitely or certainly,adv,確実に;前向きに
presume,to think that something is probably true,verb,推定する
processor,a machine or company that prepares something and makes it ready for use,n,処理装置;加工機;加工業者
productive,doing a lot of work and achieving a lot,adj,生産的な
productivity,rate at which something is made or that people work,n,多産;生産性
progression,process of developing over time,n,発達;進歩
progressive,believing in modern ideas about social change,adj,進歩的な
projection,an image on a screen,n,投影;投射
pronounce,to make the sound of a word or letter with your voice,verb,発音する
punch,to make a quick hit with a closed hand,verb,殴る,パンチ
punish,to make someone suffer for bad behavior,verb,罰する
punishment,the act of punishing someone,n,罰
purely,for no other reason; only and completely,adv,純粋に
quotation,”words that a person has said or written in a play, book or movie”,n,引用;相場;見積書
ray,the lines of light coming from an object,n,光線
reactive,easily reacting to; responsive,adj,反応の
reactor,device to control nuclear energy as a power source,n,原子炉
recipe,directions for making something,n,レシピ
reliability,a quality that makes someone or something dependable and deserving of trust,n,信頼性
replacement,”the act of putting something new in the place of something that is old, broken or missing”,n,交換
resistant,not affected by something,adj,抵抗する;耐性のある
ridiculous,”something that deserves laughter, is foolish or funny”,adj,ばかげた
rope,a thick string made by twisting many fibers together,n,ロープ
rub,to move something back and forth along a surface,verb,こする
selective,choosing through thoughtful comparison,adj,選択的な
separately,not with another person or thing,adv,別々に
separation,a line that seperates; a point of parting; a gap,n,分離
similarity,the degree to which people or things are the same,n,類似
slavery,”(n,) the state of being a slave”,n,奴隷制度
snake,an animal with with a long thin body and no arms or legs,n,ヘビ
socially,being with other people,adv,社会的に
specification,a detailed description of the design and materials used to make something.,n,仕様
spray,to make water or liquid fly in very small drops,verb,スプレー,スプレーする;散布する
stabilize,”to make something stable or consistent, with no major changes”,verb,安定させる
standardize,to change something in order to make everything the same or make everything agree,verb,標準化する
sword,a long metal weapon with a sharp point and edge,n,剣
tech,short for ‘technology’ or ‘technician’,n,科学技術
tempt,”to make someone want something, even if it’s bad”,verb,誘惑する
tense,stretched tight and stiff,adj,緊張した;ピンと張った
traditionally,something done in a customary or traditional manner,adv,伝統的に
tricky,difficult to do or deal with; something that needs skill,adj,巧妙な;扱いにくい
unstable,likely to move from its position or fall,adj,不安定な
variability,(statistics) degree scores depart from the mean,n,変動
variance,(statistics) amount of difference in distributions,n,分散
variant,thing that differs from something of the same kind,n,変異
wisdom,knowledge gained from experience in life,n,知恵
absorb,to take in a liquid; soak up,verb,吸収する
absorption,”process of being absorbed (e.g. liquid, attention)”,n,吸収
accelerate,to increase the speed or rate of something,verb,加速する
acceleration,increase in the speed or rate of something,n,加速
accumulate,To gather or acquire so that you have more of it,verb,蓄積する
accumulation,The act of getting or becoming bigger or more over time,n,蓄積
accuracy,being exactly right; correctness,n,正確さ
accurately,exactly and without any mistakes; correctly,adv,正確に
acid,sour substance that reacts with metals e.g. lemon,n,酸
acidic,containing acid,adj,酸性の
admission,the act of taking responsibility for an error or mistake,n,自白
adolescent,Teenager developing into an adult,n,青春期の若者
affirm,”to state, strengthen or support a belief you have”,verb,確認する
agriculture,the science of farming,n,農業
alien,person or creature from a planet other than Earth,n,外国人;宇宙人
alliance,A group of people or organizations being joined or associated,n,同盟;提携
allocate,To distribute or set apart for a plan or purpose,verb,割り当てる
allocation,The distribution of items set apart according to a plan or purpose,n,割り当て
approximate,about; not exact but close,adj,約;大体の;おおよその
approximation,”something that is similar, but not an exact copy”,n,近似
archaeology,”the study of ancient societies by looking at old tools, bones and buildings”,n,考古学
architect,person who designs and advises on buildings,n,建築家
aspect,”an element, feature, or quality of something”,n,面;様相
assembly,a group of machine parts forming a tool or machine,n,組み立て
assert,To state or declare your ideas positively strongly,verb,断言する
assignment,A duty that you are give to do (especially in the armed forces),n,任務; 業務; 職
athletic,fit and strong; physically capable,adj,たくましい;強健な
atom,smallest bit that matter can be broken down into,n,原子
atomic,concerning atoms,adj,原子の
audit,to examine carefully for accuracy,verb,監査
bacteria,the very small creatures that sometimes cause disease in humans and animals,n,細菌
bacterial,concerning or caused by bacteria,adj,細菌の
bargain,something bought for a lower price than expected,n,バーゲン; 安売り
beam,a long piece of metal or wood; a line of light or energy,n,梁(はり);光線;ビーム
behavioral,concerning the way people act,adj,行動の
candidate,a person who is selected by others as a contestant for an office or honor,n,候補者
cattle,cows or bulls on a farm,n,畜牛
circulate,to go round continuously,verb,循環する
circulation,the movement of blood through the body,n,循環
civilization,a highly developed society,n,文明
clarify,to state again so that a point is clearer,verb,明確にする
client,person paying for professional services,n,依頼人;顧客
clinic,local medical center; department of a hospital,n,診療所
colonial,of a system where one country controls another,adj,植民地の
colony,country or settlement controlled by another country,n,植民地
communicative,talkative; cooperative in giving information,adj,コミュニケーションのための;情報伝達の
communist,believer in communism,adj,共産主義者
compensate,to give (money) to as a form of correcting a loss,verb,補償する
competent,fully qualified or capable of doing,adj,有能な
composer,a music writer,n,作曲家
conceive,”to think of, or create, something new (e.g. idea, child)”,verb,思い付く;妊娠する
conception,an idea or notion; the first stage in pregnancy,n,概念
conceptual,characterized by concepts or the forming of concepts,adj,概念の
conduction,”the transmission of heat, electricity or sound”,n,伝導
conference,a meeting or series of meetings for discussion and exchange of information,n,会議
confine,to keep something or someone within a limited area so it cannot escape,verb,閉じ込める
consent,to agree or allow to do something,verb,承諾,同意する
conservation,the management of land and water in ways that stop it from being damaged,n,保全
conserve,to keep safe,verb,保存する;節約する
constitution,a law determining the fundamental political principles of a government,n,憲法;構成
constrain,To make someone do something by strong persuasion or force,verb,強制する; 抑制する
consultation,a discussion between people to make a decision,n,相談;協議
consumption,how much is spent on things; the process of eating and drinking,n,消費
continent,one of the very large areas of land on Earth that are usually divided into several countries,n,大陸
contradict,”to disagree, to say the opposite is true”,verb,矛盾する;否定する
contradiction,the act of saying that something is not true or very different,n,矛盾;否定
contradictory,”containing information, statements, or beliefs that do not agree with one another”,adj,矛盾した
controversy,strong public disagreement about something,n,論争
coordinate,to bring order and organization to something; in maths: any of the magnitudes that serve to define the position of a point or line by reference to a fixed figure or system of lines.,verb,調整する; まとめる
coordination,organizing people or things to make them work together effectively,n,調整
correlate,to show the relationship between two items or events.,verb,相関がある
correlation,a measure of the relationship between two variables,n,相互関係
correspondence,”Communication by letters, emails or text messages”,n,文通; 通信
corruption,”actions that are illegal or morally questionable, often performed by a person in a position of power”,n,汚職;腐敗;破損
criteria,standard used to make judgments or decisions,n,基準
critically,in a way that is serious or dangerous; vitally,adv,批判的に
crystal,a solid formed by the solidification of a chemical,n,結晶
curriculum,group of related courses in a school or college,n,カリキュラム
cyclic,a series of regular and repeated actions,adj,循環の;環式の
damp,a little wet,adj,湿った
deliberately,”in a careful, considered manner”,adv,意図的に
demonstrator,person who shows how something works e.g. product,n,証明者
dense,very thick and difficult to see/get through,adj,濃い;密集した
depict,to describe someone or something,verb,描写する
derivative,something that has developed or been obtained from something else,adj,派生物;派生語,派生した
dictate,to speak while another person (or computer) writes the words down,verb,書き取らせる;口述する
dimensional,having parts that extent in a number of directions,adj,次元の
disability,a condition that limits a person’s ability to do something,n,身体障害
discharge,to release someone or something,verb,発砲;排出;解任,排出する;放電する
discourse,”talk, conversation”,n,談話
discrimination,the ability to recognize the difference between things; treating different groups of people unfairly,n,差別;識別
distribution,- in statistics: an arrangement of values showing frequency of occurrence – in engineering: the way in which the fuel-air mixture is supplied to each cylinder of an engine – in commerce: delivery of products or services.,n,配布;分布;流通
diverse,very different from each other,adj,多様な
domination,authority; rule; control,n,支配
dose,an amount of medicine to be taken at any one time,n,服用量
drain,”a pipe that removes water, or other liquids”,n,配水管,排出する
drift,to move slowly,n,漂流,漂う
effectiveness,the degree of how well something works or is done,n,有効性
elaborate,to be made or done with great care or with much detail,adj,手の込んだ
elevate,to make something higher,verb,高くあげる
elevation,the height of a place,n,高度
elimination,the act or process of removing or being removed,n,除去
elite,important people of high status,n,エリート、上流階級、幹部
emergence,the process of emerging/coming out,n,出現
emission,a substance (e.g. gas) released into the air,n,放出;排出量
emit,”formal to release or send out (a gas, etc)”,verb,出す;発する
enforcement,the act or process of making sure that rules are followed,n,施行
essentially,”basically, primarily”,adv,本質的に
estimation,judgment; opinion; guess at the value of,n,推定
evident,”plain, clear”,adj,明らかな
evolutionary,concerning evolution,adj,進化の
execute,”To kill someone, usually as an official punishment”,verb,死刑執行する
execution,killing a person as a (usually legal) punishment,n,処刑
explicit,definite; clearly stated; specific,adj,明示的な
explicitly,clearly; specifically,adv,明示的に
exploit,to use something or someone selfishly or unethically,verb,不当に利用する;搾取する
facilitate,To make an action or process easier,verb,促進する
faculty,the teachers in a school or college,n,学部;教授陣;能力
fertility,the state of a female being able to produce young,n,肥沃;繁殖力
fiber,”a thin, threadlike part of an animal hair or plant tissue; an artificial thread; body cells that form muscles and nerves; a food substance”,n,繊維 ;ファイバー
flesh,the soft parts of the body,n,肉
flexibility,the quality of being able to be bent or stretched,n,柔軟性
formally,in a formal manner; officially,adv,正式に
formulation,”the development of a plan, system, or proposal”,n,形成;策定
founds,”to be based on, started or created by”,verb,設立する
fundamentally,in a basic and important way,adv,根本的に
genetically,”caused or controlled, or by genes”,adv,遺伝的に
genetics,”the scientific study of genes, how a living things develop between generations”,n pl.,遺伝学
globalization,”international spread of something, e.g. company”,n,世界化
goods,general term for things that are bought or sold,n pl.,商品
grasp,to grip something firmly with the hands,verb,握る;把握する,握ること
gravity,the force that makes things fall down towards the ground,n,重力
gross,total amount; extreme or unreasonable,adj,気持ち悪い
hip,the upper part of the leg,n,臀部;腰
ideology,ideas or beliefs which form theory and policy,n,イデオロギー
immune,”not affected by something, such as a disease”,adj,免疫
impact,a striking effect or result to hit with force,n,影響,影響を与える
independently,in a manner being free from the control of another,adv,独立して
inevitably,happening with complete certainty,adv,必然的に
infect,to give someone a disease,verb,感染する
infectious,”capable of causing infection, by the spreading of a bacteria or virus to others”,adj,伝染性の
initiate,to start,verb,始める
initiation,”a formal entry into an organization, position or office”,n,開始
inject,to put medicine into someone with a syringe,verb,注入する
injection,a way to put (inject) a drug or another substance into your body,n,注射;注入
insert,to put something in something,verb,挿入する
instinct,”the natural way a person or animal thinks or behaves, knowledge that is not learned”,n,本能
integration,act of bringing things together into a whole,n,統合
interact,”an action that is answered by a reaction, verbal or physical”,verb,相互に作用する
interfere,to get involved in the business of others without invitation,verb,干渉する
intervene,”to get involved, to prevent trouble”,verb,介入する
invasion,an entry into a place for the purpose of taking control,n,侵略
irrelevant,”not important, not related to the topic”,adj,無関係の
justification,a reason or fact that explains why something happens or exists,n,正当化
lecturer,a junior teacher in university,n,講師
legend,”old story generally believed, although not proven”,n,伝説
legitimate,being reasonable and sound,adj,正当な;合法な
liable,legally responsible for something,adj,法的責任がある
logical,sensible; reasonable,adj,論理的な
magnetic,”having the properties of a magnet, being able to attract.”,adj,磁気の
manipulate,to control something or someone,verb,操作する
manipulation,the act of controlling something or someone,n,操作
manual,needing the use of physical strength or work; a book of information or instructions,adj,手引書;マニュアル
marginal,very small; on the edge; not important,adj,縁の;余白の
mechanic,a person who looks after machinery,n,機械工
mechanical,using or having to do with machines,adj,機械的な
media,”means of communication (tv, newspapers, internet)”,n,メディア;マスコミ
merge,to cause two or more things to become combined into one,verb,合併する
methodology,system of practices or techniques to show how to do tasks,n,方法論
migrate,to move from place to another to live or work,verb,移動する; 移住する
migration,the process by which people or animals move to another place,n,移動;移住
missile,”a weapon, usually thrown, shot or launched”,n,ミサイル
mobility,the ability to move,n,動きやすさ;移動性
modification,”a small change to a machine, system, or plan”,n,変更
molecular,about or caused by molecules,adj,分子の
molecule,two or more atoms chemically combined,n,分子
morality,beliefs or ideas about what is right and wrong,n,道徳;倫理
mortality,the quality or state of being human and being able to die,n,死亡率
motive,a reason for doing something,n,動機
myth,a popular belief that is false or unsupported by fact,n,神話
naked,not wearing any clothes; without covering,adj,裸の
neutral,not involved; without strong feeling; without electrical charge; not acidic or akaline,adj,中立の
objection,reason for not supporting or agreeing with a plan,n,異議
obtain,To be given or to earn something through efforts,verb,得る
occupation,a career or regular job,n,職業;占有
oral,by mouth,adj,口頭の
organ,large wind instrument similar to a piano,n,オルガン
orientation,”the ability to locate oneself in your environment with reference to time, place, and people”,n,適応;オリエンテーション;方向性;位置
peasant,”a person of low social status, usually who works on a farm”,n,小作人
philosopher,a person who studies ideas about things such as the meaning of life and truth,n,哲学者
philosophical,concerning philosophy,adj,哲学的な
powder,a dry substance made up of very small pieces,n,粉末
practitioner,”a person working in a profession, such as medicine”,n,(専門職・技術などの)開業者;(特に)開業医
precede,to go before,verb,先行する
prediction,a statement of what will happen next.,n,予測
probe,a system or piece of equipment that is used to get information; in medicine: a long thin instrument used for looking inside your body,verb,探査;プローブ,探査する
profound,showing a lot of deep knowledge or thought,adj,深遠な
prominent,being important or well known,adj,著名な
psychiatric,concerning or used in psychiatry,adj,精神科の
psychologist,an expert who studies the mind and behavior,n,心理学者
psychology,the study of the mind and how it affects behaviour,n,心理学
publish,”to prepare a book, journal, magazine and make it available”,verb,出版する;発表する
puzzle,a problem that requires thought and skill to be solved,n,困らせる;当惑する,パズル
quantitative,the describing or measuring of quantity.,adj,量的な
radiation,”energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays, waves or particles.”,n,放射線
randomize,to arrange in a random order,verb,無作為化する
randomly,with no pattern or clear purpose; by chance,adv,無作為に
rational,sensible; based on facts,adj,合理的な
rationality,being able to think clearly,n,合理性
reconstruct,to rebuild something after it has been destroyed,verb,再構築する
regime,a system of management; a form of government,n,政権;体制
reinforce,to strengthen,verb,強化する;補強する
rejection,the act of refusing to consider or believe something,n,拒絶
render,”to cause someone or something to behave in a particular way, or to enter into a particular condition”,verb,〜の状態にする;与える
reproduce,to make a copy of something,verb,再生する;繁殖する
reproduction,the process that produces the next generation,n,再生;生殖作用
republic,a country governed by elected representatives,n,共和国
resemble,to be similar to someone or something in looks or manner,verb,似ている
revolutionary,a significant change in something,adj,革新的な
rhythm,a pattern of sound and beats in music,n,リズム
ritual,performed as part of a formal ceremony,n,儀式
scatter,to make things separate and go in different directions,verb,まき散らす
sensible,having the ability to judge something reasonably,adj,賢明な;分別のある
sensitivity,being sensitive; in physiology: the ability of an organism or part of an organism to react to stimuli; in electronics: the ability of a radio device to react to incoming signals,n,感受性;感度
shortly,quickly; soon,adv,まもなく
simultaneously,at the same time as,adv,同時に
sin,a bad act; to do something bad,n,罪
sophisticate,to make more complex or refined,verb,洗練させる
sponsorship,money given to a student to pay for education,n,資金援助
statistical,about statistics,adj,統計的
statistically,with respect to statistics,adv,統計的に
statistics,a type of mathematics that provide specific information or prove something,n pl.,統計
strategic,concerned with strategy; well thought out,adj,戦略的な
strictly,restricted to something,adv,厳密に
substitution,a person or thing acting or serving in place of another; to put (a person or thing) in the place of another.,n,代用;置換
subtle,”difficult to notice, understand, or see”,adj,微妙な; 繊細な;巧妙な
sufficiently,to a degree great enough to do something,adv,十分に
suicide,the act of purposely killing yourself because you no longer wish to live,n,自殺
superior,better; higher quality,n,上の,上司
sustainable,capable of continuing for a long time at the same level; does not damage the environment,adj,持続可能な
swell,”to become larger than normal, often because of injury”,verb,膨張する
symbolic,representing a larger quality,adj,象徴的な;記号の
technically,in an exact and particular manner,adv,技術的に;専門的に言うと
theorist,a person who forms new ideas,n,理論家
thereby,by that means; because of that,adv,それによって
ton,a unit of weight equal to 907 kilograms,n,トン
transaction,an exchange; in business this usually involves money,n,取引
transformation,a complete change in shape or form of something,n,変換
translation,changing from one form to another. e.g. changing from one language to another,n,翻訳
transmission,an electronic signal that has been sent by radio waves; a force that has been transferred from one machine to another,n,伝送;通信
transmit,to broadcast by using electrical signals to a radio or TV,verb,送信する
treaty,an agreement between nations,n,条約
tremendous,”having great size, excellence, or power”,adj,途方もない
tribe,”a racial group united by language, religion and customs”,n,部族
ultimate,”happening or coming at the end of process, final”,adj,究極の; 根本的な
unity,being in full agreement; being joined together,n,単一性;統一
utility,”being useful; a public service such as gas, water, or electricity that is used by everyone”,n,実用性;公益事業
vague,not clearly stated,adj,ぼんやりした
valid,sound; just; well-founded,adj,正当な;有効な
validity,how true something is; in statistics: the ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure.,n,妥当性
virtue,a good quality,n,美徳
weave,to make something by crossing threads over and under each other,verb,織る
activate,To make something start working,verb,始動する
acute,strong; very serious or severe,adj,鋭い;深刻な;急性の
adjacent,”being close or near to a border, wall, or point”,adj,隣接した
adverse,negative or harmful,adj,逆の;不利な
aesthetic,concerning the sense of artistic beauty,adj,美的な
aluminum,very light silvery-white metal used to make cans,n,アルミニウム
ancestor,a person from your family that lived in the past,n,祖先
anthropology,the study of human origins and the development of society,n,人類学
array,a large group of people or things; a regular order or arrangement; in maths: a series of figures.,n,配列
arrow,a symbol to give direction; a long piece of wood shot from a bow,n,矢印
articulate,to express something clearly using language,verb,考えをはっきり言う
artificial,not made by people; not created by nature,adj,人工の
auction,To sell to a person offering the highest price,verb,競売で売る
audio,concerning sound,adj,音声の
autonomy,the power to make independent decisions,n,自治権;自立性
barrel,a round container with curved sides and flat ends,n,樽;バレル
basin,a sink; a place in a bathroom to wash your face,n,たらい;盆地
biologist,a scientist who studies living things,n,生物学者
biology,the study of living things,n,生物学
bizarre,odd or strange,adj,奇妙な
bonus,extra money for achieving/exceeding target,n pl.,ボーナス;賞与
bubble,a small ball of air inside of a liquid,n,泡
bulk,big size; largeness; heaviness,n,体積; 容積; 多量
bullet,metal object fired from a gun,n,弾丸
bundle,a group of things that are tied together,n,束,束ねる
calcium,”a substance important for human and animal health, particularly for making bones and teeth”,n,カルシウム
campus,”the site of an institution, such as a university campus”,n pl.,キャンパス
capitalism,economic system based on private ownership of money,n,資本主義
capitalist,one believing in private ownership of money,n,資本家; 資本主義者
censor,”to remove parts of a book, film or letter for moral, religious, or political reasons”,n,検閲官,検閲する
chemistry,the study of the structure of substances,n,化学
chronic,over a long time; serious,adj,慢性的な
chunk,a large bit of something; thick lump,n,大きな塊
cinema,a place for showing movies,n,映画;映画館
classification,putting similar items into groups or sets,n,分類
classify,To arrange things into groups of similar items,verb,分類する
clay,”heavy, sticky earth used to make pottery”,n,粘土
click,to press a computer mouse to do something on a computer,verb,クリックする
clone,to make an exact copy of a living thing,verb,クローンを作る
closure,the act of closing something,n,終末
cognitive,the process of knowing and remembering,adj,認知の
coherent,(of language/ideas) logical and well-organized,adj,まとまった;理解しやすい
commodity,”Something useful or valuable, usually for sale”,n,商品;日用品
compact,packed together; closely united; small,adj,小型の,圧縮する
comparative,expressing a difference in degree,adj,比較の
competence,ability to do something in a fully satisfactory way,n,能力
complement,something needed to complete or make perfect,n,補足, 補足する; 完全にする
comply,to act in agreement with another’s wishes; to obey a rule,verb,従う
comprehension,ability to understand,n,理解
configuration,a shape or outline; a method of arrangement,n,形状
consensus,a decision that is shared by most of the members of a group,n pl.,合意;コンセンサス
contrary,different; opposite,adj,逆の,反対
cord,”a long, strong material, thicker than string but not as thick as rope; an electrical wire”,n,ひも;コード
credibility,quality of being believable or deserving of trust,n,信頼性
critique,a review of the quality of a work,n,批評
crude,”basic or made without skill, such as a crude drawing”,adj,原油,自然の;粗雑な
deadline,a date or time before which something must be done,n,締め切り
decay,to be slowly broken down by natural processes,verb,腐敗;減衰,腐敗する;崩壊する
defect,a problem; a fault,n,欠陥
deficiency,without something that is necessary,n,欠乏
dependence,relying on someone for (financial) support,n,依存
destination,the place one is traveling to,n,目的地;宛先
diagnose,”to determine the cause of something, e.g. an illness”,verb,診断する
diagnosis,a judgment by a doctor about a person’s illness,n pl.,診断
diagram,a drawing intended to explain how something works,n,図
diameter,the distance across the center of an object,n,直径
diary,blank book in which you write what you did each day,n,日記
dictionary,a book with the spellings and meanings of many words,n,辞書
differentiate,to see or show a difference between things,verb,区別する;差別化する
differentiation,a discrimination between things as different and distinct,n,差別化;分化
dilemma,a position in which a person must make difficult choices,n,ジレンマ
dioxide,an oxide containing two oxides per molecule,n,二酸化
disadvantage,a negative point; a downside; difficulty,n,不利な点
displacement,the act of taking the place of something or someone else,n,移動;置換
dissolve,to melt into a liquid so that a substance mixes with the liquid itself,verb,溶解する
domain,”a field of action, thought or influence; an area of knowledge”,n,領域;ドメイン
donor,a person or group that gives gifts or money to help support an organization or cause,n,寄贈者
duration,the length of time that something lasts,n,持続;継続期間
dynamic,always active or changing; in physics: a force related to motion,adj,動的な; 活動的な
ecological,”concerning the environment, plants, or animals”,adj,生態学的な
electron,a negatively charged particle,n,電子
elementary,”basic, simple, or essential”,adj,初等の
emperor,man who rules an empire,n,皇帝
empirical,based on observation or experiment,adj,実証的な;経験による
entity,something that is real,n,実体
essence,the most important part or quality of something,n,本質
ethical,morally right or wrong,adj,倫理的な
ethics,”the moral principles, standards, and rules for deciding what is right and wrong”,n pl.,倫理学;道徳
exit,a door that you go through to leave a place,n,出口;終了
expertise,the special knowledge that an expert has,n,専門知識
fever,a high body temperature,n,熱
fluid,a material that can easily flow. e.g. water,adj,流体(名)、 流動的な(形)
forum,meeting where people can openly discuss a subject,n,フォーラム、講演会、座談会
fossil,a plant or animal that has become rock after many thousands of years,n,化石
fraction,a part of a whole,n,一部;少量;分数
fracture,the result of breaking a hard material; a crack,n,骨折,骨折する;砕く
fringe,the edge of something; such as the decorative edge on a piece of clothing,n,縁;縞(しま)
fusion,”when different styles, ideas or designs combine to form something new; in physics: when atoms combine to produce nuclear energy”,n,融合
gauge,a tool used to measure things,n,計測器,測定する
goat,small animal with beard and horns,n,ヤギ
graph,image expressing numerical data in lines or shapes,n,図表;グラフ
grid,a metal structure with bars that is used to cover a hole,n,格子;送電網
gut,”the parts inside: a human body, animal body or a machine”,n,腸
habitat,”the natural place, or type of place, where a plant or animal lives”,n,生息地
harvest,the time of year to bring crops in from the fields,n,収穫
hierarchy,a system for organizing people or things according to their importance,n,階層;ヒエラルキー
horizon,the line where the earth or sea meets the sky,n,地平線;水平線;視野;層位
horizontal,flat or level,adj,水平の
hormone,a chemical produced by the body to control some function,n,ホルモン
hydrogen,”the lightest of all chemical elements, has no smell or color”,n,水素
illusion,”an image that seems real, but is not real”,n,幻想
implicit,not stated directly,adj,暗黙の
impulse,a sudden desire to do something that is not planned,n,衝撃
incidence,the rate that something happens,n,発生率
incline,a slope or surface that rises uphill,n,傾く,傾斜
inclusion,act of including; person/thing that is included,n,包含
indifference,a lack of enthusiasm or interest in things; seeming not to care,n,無関心
indigenous,”living or growing naturally in an area, not brought from somewhere else”,adj,固有の;土着の
indirect,having a path that is not straight or direct,adj,間接的な
induce,”to cause, to persuade”,verb,誘発する
inference,an opinion that you form based on information you already have,n,推論
infinite,without an end,adj,無限の
informal,not official; not done by the rules,adj,非公式の
inhibit,to make it difficult for a process to start or continue in a normal way,verb,抑制する
inhibition,the process whereby nerves can retard or prevent the functioning of an organ; the act of blocking or holding back,n,抑制;阻害
insect,”a small animal with 6 legs, such as a bee or ant”,n,昆虫
integral,part of something,adj,不可欠な
interface,a shared boundary between two persons or systems through which information is communicated.,n,接点
interval,”the distance between two points, numbers or times”,n,間隔;区間
invade,to enter a place with an aim of taking control of it,verb,侵入する
jazz,a type of American music known for its energetic beat and parts that musicians make up as they go along,n,ジャズ
leaf,the green part of a tree or plant,n,葉
leisure,time when you have no work to do and can relax,n,余暇;レジャー
lever,a handle that one pulls to operate a machine,n,レバー
likewise,”in the same way, in addition to”,adj,同様に
limb,”leg, arm or wing”,n,肢
linear,made of lines,adj,線形の
linguistic,belonging to language,adj,言語の
linguistics,the study of human languages,n pl.,言語学
liver,a large organ in the body that helps to absorb food and clean the blood,n,肝臓
loop,a round shape,n,輪
lung,an organ used to breathe,n,肺
magnitude,size or importance,n,大きさ
manuscript,”a document, a piece of writing”,n,原稿
marble,a kind of stone; metamorphosed limestone,n,大理石
matrix,”a substance, situation, or environment in which something has its origin – in math: an arrangement of numbers in rows and columns”,n,マトリックス;基質
maximize,”to increase, or become as large or great as possible”,verb,最大化する
mediate,”to bring about an agreement between persons or groups, act as a helper”,verb,仲介する
metaphor,a figure of speech based on analogy,n,隠喩
mineral,a substance naturally formed in the ground,n,鉱物
minimal,the smallest possible,adj,最小の
minimize,to make something as small as possible,verb,最小限にする
momentum,speed or force that is gained when something moves,n,勢い;運動量
monetary,”concerning money, often referring to a country’s economic system”,adj,金銭的な
monopoly,complete control of the market for a service or product,adv,独占
multiply,to increase greatly in number,verb,掛け合わせる;増殖する
necessity,something that you must have or do,n,必要性; 必需品
noble,having personal qualities that people admire,adj,気高い
nonetheless,”in spite of that, nevertheless”,adj,それにもかかわらず
nonlinear,not in a line,adj,非線形の
norm,an established standard of performance or behavior,n,規範;基準
obscure,”not famous, unknown by most people; not easy to understand”,adj,あいまいな
optical,concerning vision or helping people see,adj,光学の
organism,”living thing, often one that is small”,n,生命体
outlet,”a way for something to be released; a pipe, hole or wire through which gas, liquid or electricity flows”,n,アウトレット
overhead,located above your head or in the sky,adj,間接費
overlap,To lie over or cover a part of something else,verb,重複,重なる
oxygen,”a gas in the air that has no smell or taste, and that all animals need to breathe”,n,酸素
paradox,”a saying that seems contrary to popular belief, but which may be true”,n,逆説;パラドックス
parameter,”a characteristic or constant factor, a limit.”,n,パラメーター
particle,a very small piece of something,n,粒子
peripheral,not connected to the main or important part of something,adj,周辺の
physician,a medical doctor,n,医師
physics,”the study of heat, light, and other forms of energy and how they affect objects”,n pl.,物理学
plural,refers to more than one person or thing,adj,複数の
polar,concerning the areas near the North or South poles,adj,極の
portfolio,a list of the financial assets held by an individual or other financial institution,n,ポートフォリオ
portray,”to represent something or someone in a particular way, often for artistic purposes”,verb,描く
portrayal,”the way that something or someone is represented in a book, film, picture or other context”,adj,描写
poster,”a large, printed notice or picture”,n,ポスター
predator,an animal that feeds itself by killing and eating other animals,n,捕食者
predominantly,”in a way that is larger, greater or has more power than others”,adv,圧倒的に
prejudice,”an unreasonable hatred for a group of people, usually a race or a religion”,n,偏見
prevalence,”widespread, common, general”,n,流行
prey,an animal that is killed and eaten by another animal,n,捕食
primitive,being of an early time period in the past,adj,原始的な
proposition,an idea; a suggestion,n,提案;命題
protocol,a set of rules; computers use protocol so they can exchange information,n,外交儀礼;議定書;協定
pulse,beat of the heart,n,脈拍
questionnaire,form used to get information from many people,n,アンケート
rack,”a frame, stand or hook on which things are set or hung”,n,棚
realm,the area ruled by a king or queen,n,領域
regression,going back; in statistics: a type of correlational procedure that focuses on predicting the values of an outcome based on its correlation with another variable.,n,退行
rehabilitation,”a scheme to help someone who has been ill or in prison to return to a healthy, independent, and useful life”,n,修復;リハビリ
residual,”concerning the last little bit, after the rest has gone or ended”,adj,残りの,残余
residue,left over after part or most is taken away,n,剰余;残留物
retrieve,to find and get something from somewhere,verb,取り戻す;検索する
rhetoric,the study of public speaking or writing techniques,n,言葉遣い;修辞学
robot,a mechanical creature that acts like a human,n,ロボット
rotate,to move or turn around a central point,verb,回転する
rotation,movement in a circle around a central point,n,回転
scenario,an outline; an imagined sequence of events in a plan or project,n,シナリオ
scholarship,money given to a student to pay for education,n,奨学金
seminar,a small class at a college or university,n,セミナー
sensation,”a feeling that is experienced by the body, usually through the sense of touch”,n,感覚
shallow,not deep; a small distance between the lowest and highest point,adj,浅い
simulate,”to look, feel, or behave like something; to copy”,verb,ふりをする;シミュレーションをする
simulation,a copy; a method that is used to study and analyze the characteristics of the real world,n,シミュレーション
sketch,a drawing made quickly that lacks detail,n,スケッチ
skip,to not do; to jump,verb,スキップ,飛ばす
slot,”a long narrow opening, into which you put or fit something”,n,細長い穴;地位;時間枠
sodium,”a soft, white chemical element”,n,ナトリウム
solar,”concerning the sun, or its heat”,adj,太陽の
span,the amount of time something lasts,verb,期間,架かる;及ぶ
spatial,about space,adj,空間的な
specimen,”an example of something, especially of a plant or an animal; a small amount of blood or urine”,n pl.,見本;標本
spectrum,the wavelengths of colors from red to violet,n,スペクトル
sphere,a round 3D object. e.g. a ball,n,球体;天体
spontaneous,”something that happens on its own, seemingly without cause”,adj,自発的な
stack,To put one thing on top of another e.g. books,verb,山,積み上げる
stadium,very large building with a sports field and rows of seats all around that is used for various events,n,スタジアム
stance,a position or opinion that is stated to the public,n,姿勢
stereotype,”an idea or belief about what someone or something is like, often unfair or untrue”,n,固定観念,固定観念で見る
stimulus,something that makes a change.,n pl.,刺激
straightforward,easy to do or understand; not complicated,adj,まっすぐな;率直な;正直な
strand,something that is plaited or twisted as a rope-like length,n,糸
stripe,”a long, thin part of something which is a different color from the parts beside it”,n,縞模様
subjective,”the use of personal feelings and opinions, rather than facts”,adj,主観的な
surgeon,a doctor who performs surgery,n,外科医
surplus,extra; more than is needed,adj,余剰;黒字
syndrome,a group of signs and symptoms that accompany a disease,n,症候群
synthesis,building something complex from simple parts,n pl.,合成
terminal,the end of something,n,終点;終着駅;ターミナル
thesis,a long essay; a position taken in an argument supported by a set of reasons,n,論文;命題
thread,”a long, very thin, soft material used to join or make cloth”,n,糸
threshold,a level or point at which something would start or stop happening.,n,しきい値
thumb,”the short, thick finger on the side of your hand”,n,親指
toxic,poisonous; harmful,adj,毒性の
trait,a characteristic,n,特徴
transcription,something written,n,転写
transplant,a medical operation in which a new organ is placed inside a patient’s body,n,移植,移植する
trauma,a very severe or upsetting experience,n,外傷;トラウマ
triangle,a closed shape with three straight sides,n,三角形
tropical,hot and humid; near to the equator,adj,熱帯の
tumor,a mass of abnormal cells that develops when cancerous cells divide and grow uncontrollably,n,腫瘍
tutor,a teacher,n,家庭教師
undermine,to weaken or destroy something secretly and usually slowly,verb,弱体化させる
unify,to join or bring together,verb,統一する
upward,moving toward a higher point or position,adv,上向きに
utilize,to use something practically for a particular purpose,verb,利用する
utterance,something that is said,n,発話
vein,one of the little tubes that return blood from the body to the heart,n,静脈
verbal,”using speech, rather than being written”,adj,言葉による
vertical,a line going up/down; not horizontal,adj,垂直の
viable,able to be done; possible,adj,実行可能な
vitamin,a substance that is healthy for your body and can be found in foods or taken as a medicine,n,ビタミン
abdominal,Concerned with the abdomen or stomach,adj,腹部の
aggregate,a sum total amount of something,n,(…の)総計
algorithm,a step-by-step problem-solving feature,n,アルゴリズム
altitude,the height of something above sea level,n,高度
analogy,comparison of things based on their similarity,n,類似;類推
antibiotic,concerning medicine that is used to fight certain diseases,adj,抗生物質,抗生物質の
antibody,a defense provided by the body against disease,n,抗体
appendix,additional information at the end of a document,n,付録;追加
applause,the sound made by clapping a performance or speech,n,拍手
arbitrary,unsupported,adj,任意の; 気ままな
axis,”a line about which a rotating body, such as the earth, turns.”,n,軸
bracket,a 90 degree piece of metal used to support a wall shelf,n,括弧
coefficient,a number multiplied by a variable in an algebraic expression.,adj,係数
composite,made of more than one different part,adj,合成物,複合の
cone,a 3D shape with a circular base; a part of the eye,n,円錐
converge,to come together,verb,集中する
convergence,coming together,n,収束
cue,a word or action during a stage play to tell an actor to speak,n,合図,合図を送る
cylinder,”a shape or object with flat, circular ends and long, straight sides”,n,シリンダー
degrade,to treat someone without respect; to reduce in amount or strength,verb,低下する;分解する
delta,the place a river divides before entering a larger body of water,n,デルタ
deviation,”not standard or normal; in statistics: the difference between one of a set of values and some fixed value, usually the mean of the set.”,n,逸脱;偏差
diagnostic,to do with finding out the cause of a problem,adj,診断の
differential,difference; diversity,adj,区別を示す
diffusion,the movement of light in many directions,n,拡散
dilute,”to mix; to reduce in strength, concentration, quality or purity”,verb,希薄な,薄くする
dominance,”the state of being more powerful, successful, or important than others”,n,支配
dye,a liquid that colors hair or cloth,n,染料,染める
ecology,”the study of plants, animals, people, and their environments”,n,生態学
elastic,able to return to original shape or size after stretching,adj,弾性の
elasticity,the ability to stretch easily and then quickly return to the original shape,n,弾力性
embed,”to place or set inside rock, etc”,verb,埋め込む
enzyme,a protein made by cells,n,酵素
epidemic,a disease affecting many people,adj,流行性の、伝染病
equilibrium,a state of balance,n,平衡
erase,to remove written information or information on a computer memory,verb,消す
fatigue,being very tired,n,疲労
fungus,”a group of plants that grow on dead materials and have no flowers, e.g. mushrooms”,n pl.,菌
gram,a metric unit of weight,n,グラム
hawk,a large bird that gets its food by killing smaller birds and animals,n,タカ
incumbent,a person who holds a particular office or position,n,現職
inferior,not as good as something else,adj,劣る,目下の者
ion,a charged atom,n,イオン
kidney,an organ in the body that cleans the blood,n,腎臓
lateral,on the side; moving sideways,adj,横の,側面
mall,a large shopping center with many individual stores,n,モール
maternal,having to do with being a mother,adj,母性の
membrane,a thin covering of tissue.,n,膜
messenger,someone who delivers a messages,n,使者;メッセンジャー
motif,”a distinctive form, shape or figure in a design”,n,モチーフ
multinational,involving many countries,adj,多国籍の,多国籍企業
mutation,a change; in genetics: any event that changes genetic structure,n,突然変異
niche,”a small area; a specialised business, job or activity”,n,ニッチ
nitrogen,a colorless chemical element without a smell that forms most of the earth’s atmosphere,n,窒素
node,an intersection or junction point in a network; a part on a plant where a new leaf grows,n,こぶ;結節
nominal,in name or thought but not reality,adj,名ばかりの
nucleus,control center of a cell,n pl.,核
numerical,includes numbers,adj,数値
nutrient,”a chemical, food, that animals and plants need to live, develop, and be healthy”,n,栄養素
offspring,the child of a person or the young of a plant or animal,n,子孫
onset,the beginning,n,開始
orient,to focus your attention or efforts on something,verb,適応させる;正しい方向に置く
overview,a description of the main features of something,n,概観
par,the usual amount,n,等価;平均;額面価格
paradigm,a set of ideas that are used for understanding or explaining something,n,パラダイム
parcel,”a package or box wrapped in paper, a thing bigger than a letter that is sent in the mail”,n,小包
pest,an unwanted insect or small animal that eats plants or food supplies,n,害虫
pesticide,a chemical substance used to kill pests,n,農薬
plantation,”a large area of plants, usually in a hot climate”,n,農園
plausible,being reasonable and possibly true,adj,もっともらしい
pragmatic,”dealing with problems in a reasonable, practical manner”,adj,実用的な
precipitate,to cause to happen,verb,沈殿物
precipitation,”rain, snow or hail”,n,降水量
qualitative,”concerning how good something is, rather than quantity”,adj,質的な
quantum,the smallest unit or amount of energy,n,量子
radar,a device that sends out radio waves for finding out the position of another object,n,レーダー
replicate,”to repeat something, such as an experiment, study or process”,verb,複製する
replication,the act of making copies,n,レプリケーション
reservoir,”a lake, usually artificial, where water is collected and stored for the use of a community or industry”,n,貯水池
scripture,the holy books of a particular religion,n,聖書
sediment,the material that settles to the bottom of a liquid,n,堆積物
semantic,the different meanings of words,adj,意味の
shuttle,a vehicle that carries passengers or items between two places,n,シャトル,往復する
slab,”a thick, flat slice of something”,n,厚板;厚切り
slash,to cut violently,n,サッと切る;大幅に削減する,切り傷;削減;スラッシュ
sniff,to smell by short intakes of air.,verb,匂いを嗅ぐ
socialize,to teach people to behave in a way which is acceptable in their culture; to spend time with people,verb,社交化
static,being unchangeable or unmovable,adj,静的な
surgical,concerning surgery,adj,外科の
susceptible,at risk of developing a certain illness or problem,adj,影響を受けやすい
swap,to trade or exchange,verb,交換する
synthetic,not natural; made from artificial materials,adj,合成的な
temporal,concerning time,adj,一時的な
thermal,with reference to some source of heat,adj,熱の
tolerance,”a willingness to let people do, say or believe what they wish, without judging or challenging them”,n,耐性
tract,a large stretch of land,n,器官系;土地
turbulent,moving violently and unevenly,adj,乱流
undergraduate,a college student who is working toward his or her first degree,n,学部生
unintelligible,that cannot be understood,adj,理解できない
urine,yellow liquid waste from the body,n,尿
usage,the way something is used,n,使用
valve,”a device along a pipe that can either open and allow something to flow, or close and block it”,n,弁;バルブ
velocity,speed in a given direction,n,速度
vocabulary,the words that a person knows,n,語彙
wheat,a kind of grain that is used to make flour for bread,n,小麦
whereby,by which; by that thing,adv,それによって~する
antiquity,an ancient period; something made a long time ago,n,古代;古代に作られたもの
binary,”having two parts; using only 2 numbers, 1 and 0″,adj,2つの;2進法の
chess,”a game of strategy, for two players”,n,チェス
chromosome,cell structures that carry the genetic material that is copied and passed to the next generation.,n,染色体
contour,the shape of the outside edge of something,n,輪郭
coronary,concerning the heart,adj,冠状動脈
corpus,a body; in linguistics: a body of words,n pl.,集成;コーパス;体
deceive,to make someone believe something that is not true,verb,欺く
deflection,the action of making something move in a different direction,n,たわみ
denote,be a name or symbol for,verb,示す
dialect,a way of speaking a language that is used only in a particular area or by a particular group,n,方言
discrete,separate; composed of distinct parts,adj,別々の
encode,to change a message or information into code,verb,暗号化する
epidemiology,the science of how diseases spread,n,疫学
facet,a part of something,n,宝石などの小面
fin,”the flat, thin body parts of a fish that sticks out and helps guide it through water”,n,魚のひれ
finite,having limits; lasting for a limited time,adj,有限の
flux,a state of flow and change,n,流れ
friction,the act of sliding two objects against each other,n,摩擦
hepatitis,”a disease of the liver that causes inflammation, yellow skin and a fever”,n,肝炎
induction,”bringing about, or causing”,n,誘導
invert,to turn something upside down,verb,反転する
irrigation,supplying land with water using pipes,n,かんがい
liter,metric unit for measuring liquid or gas,n,リットル
locus,a place or location; in genetics: the location of a gene on a chromosome,n,軌跡
mentor,an experienced or wise person who teaches or helps another person,n,メンター
mercury,”a heavy, silver-white metal that is used in thermometers to measure temperature; a planet”,n,水銀
metabolism,the chemical processes of the body in which food is converted to energy,n,代謝
mole,a small animal with dark fur that lives under the ground; a unit for measuring molecules,n,ほくろ
neuron,a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.,n,ニューロン
notation,a set of written signs or shapes that are used in music or mathematics,n,表記法
novice,”a person with little or no experience in a particular activity, skill, or subject”,n,初心者
oscillation,”movement, from side to side at a steady speed; a frequent change in size, strength, or direction between two limits”,n,振動
partition,”a wall, screen, or piece of glass used to separate one area from another”,n,分割
physiological,concerning how the body functions,adj,生理学的な
quiz,a game in which players answer questions on a specific topic,n,小テスト,小テストをする
radius,a given area or a range around a certain point; a line from the center of a circle to its edge,n,半径
receptor,a device that receives information; in physiology: a nerve ending that changes stimuli into impulses,n,受容体
repertoire,a collection of skills or accomplishments.,n,レパートリー
respiratory,to do with breathing,adj,呼吸器の
scroll,a long rolled piece of paper with writing on it; to move up and down a computer screen,n,スクロール
secrete,to produce a liquid,verb,隠す;分泌する
sensory,”referring to the five senses (hearing, sight, smell, taste and touch)”,adj,感覚の
solvent,something that dissolves or can melt another substance,n,溶剤
sperm,male sex cell,n,精子
syllable,a unit of speech,n,音節
terminology,specific words and expressions used in a particular field,n,用語
transcribe,to write something spoken,verb,~を書き写す
vector,a quantity that has both size and direction.,n,ベクトル
yeast,a single-celled fungi used to make bread and beer,n,イースト
amino,a substance that combines to form the structure of proteins,n,アミノ酸
artifact,”object made by humans, e.g. ancient tool”,n,工芸品;人工遺物
bilingual,being able to speak two languages well,adj,バイリンガル
chemotherapy,”the treatment of diseases, such as cancer, using chemicals”,n,化学療法
confound,”to confuse and greatly surprise someone, so that they are unable to explain a situation”,verb,情況などを混乱させる
dissection,the act or process of cutting something,n,切開
dissertation,an in-depth paper submitted for a doctorate degree,n,論文
entrant,a person who enters a contest,n,参加者
fetal,”concerning a fetus, an unborn baby”,adj,胎児
gradient,a measure of how steep something is,n,勾配
grammatical,concerning grammatical rules,adj,文法の
infinity,with out end; limitless,n,無限
innate,present in a person or animal from the time of birth,adj,生まれつきの
longitudinal,going from the top to the bottom of something,adj,縦方向の
marrow,”a soft, fatty tissue inside bones”,n,骨髄
millimeter,1/1000th of a meter,n,ミリリットル
morphological,the study of form and structure,adj,形態素
morphology,”the study of the forms and structures of plants, animals and words”,n,形態
neural,about the nerves or nervous system,adj,神経の
null,having no impact,adj,無効の
optimum,the best or most desirable,adj,最適な
phenomenal,”unusual, remarkable”,adj,驚異的な
phosphate,a salt or compound used to help grown plants,n,リン酸塩
potassium,”a common, soft, silvery white metal that is usually used for farming or industrial purposes”,n,カリウム
primer,a book that covers the basics of a subject; a kind of paint,n,入門書
proton,a very small part of an atom that has a positive electrical charge,n,陽子
soluble,”can be mixed with a liquid, e.g. salt is soluble in water”,adj,水溶性
substrate,a substance which a catalyst or enzyme has an effect on,verb,基板
subtract,”to take away, e.g. 20 – 5 = 15″,verb,減算する
syllabus,the teaching schedule for a course in a school or university,n,概要
trajectory,the path followed by an object moving through space,n,弾道
transparency,the amount you can see through something,n,透明
vowel,”a speech sound; a, e , i, o, u and sometimes y”,n,母音
watershed,”a period of time during which important, significant changes take place”,verb,流域
algebra,mathematics using letters and symbols in place of some numbers,n,代数学
amplitude,”the breadth, width or largeness of something”,n,振幅
biodiversity,”the variation in an environment, the number of different types of life found there”,n,生物多様性
chloride,a chemical compound that is a mixture of chlorine and something else,n,塩化物
circa,an approximate time period,n,約(年号に使われる)
consonant,a speech sound; any letter in the alphabet that is not a vowel.,adj,一致した
cortex,the outer part of an organ or structure,n,皮質
inversion,a change in position of things so they become the opposite,n,反転
lexical,about words,adj,語彙の
multi,a prefix meaning ‘more than one’,prefix,多数の
phonological,concerning sound,adj,音韻的な
postgraduate,graduate studying for a further degree,n,大学院生
sneeze,to loudly blow air out of your nose or mouth in a sudden uncontrolled way,verb,くしゃみをする
syntax,”the study of a system, such as the system of words in a sentence”,n,構文
theorem,a statement that can be proved,n,定理
aerosol,a container that sprays liquid under pressure,n,エアロゾル
axiom,a statement that is accepted as true,n,公理
calculus,a type of mathematics used for calculating such things as the slopes of curves,n,結石、微積分(数学)
capillary,very small blood vessels,n,毛細血管
comma,mark showing a pause or list in a sentence,n,コンマ
congruent,having the same shape and size,adj,合同の
denominator,the bottom number in a fraction,n,分母
equivalence,when something is equal to something else,n,同価値
exponential,a constant e raised to a power equal to a given expression: e.g. e3x is the exponential of 3x.,adj,指数の
helix,a 3D spiral shape,n,螺旋
herbicide,a poison that kills weeds,n,除草剤
semi,a prefix meaning ‘half’,prefix,半;準
splice,act of connecting two pieces of rope or wire into one,n,接合
connotation,an association; an implication,n,含蓄
descriptor,a label; something that describes,n,記述語;記述子
oxidize,to convert (an element) into an oxide; combine with oxygen – to rust,verb,酸化
parenthesis,”one of two symbols ( and ), used in writing”,n,括弧
semester,half a year in school or college,n,学期
trans,”a prefix meaning ‘across’, ‘through’ or ‘changing thoroughly'”,prefix,トランス
volition,the act of making a conscious choice,n,意志選択行為
factorial,concerning factors or factorials,adj,要因の;階乗の
solute,”a substance that has dissolved in a solvent and become part of the liquid, so that they form a solution”,adj,溶質
mid,at (or near) the middle point,adj,中央の
airplane,a machine that flies through the air,n,飛行機
artwork,photographs or pictures in a printed publication,n,作品
breakdown,when normal activity or behaviour stops,n,故障;破壊
classroom,room in a school where lessons take place,n,教室
feedback,a response to a message; information about a person’s behavior,n,フィードバック
footnote,extra information at the bottom of a page,n,脚注
halfway,a middle point between two extremes,adv,中間で;途中で
handout,”a piece of paper with information, often given out before a presentation”,n,配布資料
homework,work that a student is given to do at home,n,宿題
layout,”plan or design of something, e.g. of book page”,n,レイアウト;設計
lifestyle,the type of life that you have,n,ライフスタイル;生活様式
lifetime,the time between birth and death,n,生涯
pathway,a path or way that you can walk,n,経路
rainfall,water falling from the sky,n,降雨
textbook,a book that is used to study,n,教科書
uplift,to make someone feel happier or more hopeful,n,元気付ける
wavelength,the size of a wave; a shared understanding,n,波長
widespread,happening or existing in many places; affecting many people,adj,広く行き渡っている
workshop,a brief intensive course for a small group; emphasizes problem solving,n,作業場;研修会
anti,a prefix meaning ‘against’ or ‘opposed’,prefix,アンチ
ex,”a prefix meaning “”out of,”” “”from,”” or “”not”””,prefix,元
micro,”a prefix meaning ‘very small’, such as microchip”,n,マイクロ
neo,a prefix meaning ‘recent’ or ‘new’,n,ネオ
non,a prefix meaning ‘not’,prefix,~でない
pi,the ratio of the circumference to the diameter of a circle; approximately equal to 3.14,n,パイ
pole,”a long, narrow piece of metal or wood, that is used to hold or support something”,n,極
pre,a prefix meaning ‘before’,prefix,前
sub,a prefix meaning ‘under’ or ‘instead of’,prefix,サブ
super,of the highest quality; great; marvelous,adj,超;最高の
headquarter,the main office of a company or organisation,n,本社
identical,the same in every way,adj,同一の


Strands of Language Learning, a concept by Paul Nation

  • More input quantity, as long as it’s the right level for the learner (Time on Task principle, if you want to be good at listening do lots of listening). Generally should be several levels below the learner’s level, so they can read a lot.
  • Meaning-focused input
  • Output, learning through speaking and writing
  • Deliberate study, teachers are conscious
  • Fluency, being really good at using what you already know